It is contrasted with varying kinds of monism, including materialism and phenomenalism. Scholasticism school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. In everyday use, defeatism has negative connotation, and is often linked to treason and pessimism. Dialetheism a metaphysical doctrine according to which there are true contradictions. Its core idea is that the mental states can be accounted for without taking into account the underlying physical medium (the neurons), instead attending to higher-level functions such as beliefs, desires, and emotions. Metaphysics a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,[16] although the term is not easily defined. Usually involves the belief that humans have greater value or worth than other animal species. (See also cosmotheism). Since the question “What do we know” implies that humans retain knowledge, it is fundamentally anti-skeptical. Transcendental idealism denies that people could have knowledge of the thing in itself. Philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom, spans the nature of the universe and human nature (of the mind and the body), the relationships between these, and between people. Its origins are intertwined with Judaism, with which it shares much sacred lore, including the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible). Suppose P is any indicative sentence, say, “It is raining.” The law of identity: P is P. The law of noncontradiction: P is not non-P. Inductionism the scientific philosophy where laws are “induced” from sets of data. Kathenotheisman extension of “henotheism”, from kath hena theon — “one god at a time”. Transcendentalism a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that advocates that there is an ideal spiritual state that ‘transcends’ the physical and empirical and is only realized through a knowledgeable intuitive awareness that is conditional upon the individual. It is a form of materialism, denying any independent significance for the mind. Proponents of the movement held that art does not have any didactic purpose, it need only be beautiful. Humanistic naturalism see its entry under naturalism, below. Individualism is often associated with classical liberalism and opposed to the various sorts of communalism and nationalism. Someone’s belief is true if and only if it is coherent with all or most of their other beliefs. Another alternative meaning for transcendentalism is the classical philosophy that God transcends the manifest world. This position is sometimes called solifidianism. Those who practice ascetic lifestyles often perceive their practices as virtuous and pursue them to achieve greater spirituality. However, the word certainly does not necessarily imply a negative connotation. Objects have certain properties regardless of any thought to the contrary. By definition it is close to holism. I would love hear from you! Skepticisma school or method of doubt regarding what is held as knowledge. Kierkegaardianism a set of philosophical, theological and psychological positions based on the work of the 19th century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. It allows for the possibility of either as long as what is chosen is efficacious in satisfying self-interest of the agent. Universalism synonym for moral universalism, as a compromise between moral relativism and moral absolutism. Ethnocentrism the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one’s own culture. With more than two billion adherents, or about one-third of the total world population, it is the largest world religion. The moral principles Fletcher is specifically referring to are the moral codes of Christianity and the type of love he is specifically referring to is ‘Agape’ love. It was developed as a reaction against the passive view of matter in philosophical mechanism. The works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur, however many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost with the works being an artifact, and leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. Pluralism holds that there are even more kinds of events or things in the world. Put concisely, it is the study of knowledge and justified belief. Freudianism[10][11]the beliefs and practice of psychoanalysis as devised by Sigmund Freud; particularly, the mechanism of psychological repression; the situation of sexual desire as central to the development of the persona; and the efficacy of the “talking cure” or psychoanalytic technique. Hinduism arguably the oldest religion in the world. Naturalism does not necessarily claim that phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural do not exist or are wrong, but insists that all phenomena and hypotheses can be studied by the same methods and therefore anything considered supernatural is either nonexistent, unknowable, or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses. Darwinism[4]theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual’s ability to compete, survive, and reproduce. Legal naturalism term coined by Olufemi Taiwo for a current in the social philosophy of Karl Marx that can be interpreted as one of Natural Law. Foundationalists hold that basic beliefs are justified by mental events or states (such as experiences) that do not constitute beliefs (these are called nondoxastic mental states), or that they simply are not the type of thing that can (or needs to be) justified. It is most well known in its application in medieval theology but was applied to classical philosophy and other fields of study. Scientism the belief that science has primacy over other ways of obtaining knowledge. Since Kant only specifies the last two of these propositions, there is a debate regarding the identity of the first. But it received both its name and its clearest statement in the writings of English philosophers Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). According to Hume, free will should not be understood as an absolute ability to have chosen differently under exactly the same inner and outer circumstances. Falsificationism the idea that a proposition or theory cannot be scientific if it does not admit the possibility of being shown to be false. [9] Hence, expressivists either do not allow that moral sentences have truth value, or rely on a notion of truth value that does not appeal to any descriptive truth conditions being met for moral sentences.Externalism[1]in epistemology, the theory that justification can hold elements not known to the subject of the belief. Communitarianism a group of related but distinct philosophies that began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. Feminisma diverse collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women, especially in terms of their social, political, and economic situation. Substantialism the philosophy that there are sentient entities behind phenomena Surrealism cultural movement that began in the early-1920s, best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. What it expresses is an imperative. That is, truth is reducible to this process of verification. Interactionism a philosophy that explores the relationship between cause and effect in regards to the human perception of the universe. Taoism a group of Chinese religious and philosophical traditions. Millions of books are just a click away on and through our FREE NOOK reading apps. One refers to the coherence theory of truth, which restricts true sentences to those that cohere with some specified set of sentences. However, narrower definitions often only qualify the former as atheism, the latter falling under the more general (but rarely used) term nontheism. redness, hardness, softness, sweetness, etc.) Perfectionism an ethical view that maintains an individual lives the Good life to the extent she successfully exercises character traits that are a part of her nature.Personalism school of thought that consists of three main principles: 1) only people are real (in the ontological sense), 2) only people have value, and 3) only people have free will. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Principles of Philosophy and what it means.


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