The textile industry followed the industrial revolution model more closely than any other early national American economic sector. But on balance, especially under the influence of such ameliorative initiatives, industrialization also clearly improved the material qualities of human life. Until well after World War II, most historians of the industrial revolution shared Marx's sense of the period as one of overwhelming social change, both positive and negative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990. In 1700 2.5 millions tons of coal were mined; in 1800 10 million tons; in 1861 57 million tons. (1999). Rural people there became more closely tied to markets as they purchased factory goods and sold farm goods to factory workers. The railroad industry particularly transformed the business landscape of the United States. They responded by forming unions and alliances that insisted on populist reforms. Specifically he compares Britain and China in depth. The Transportation Revolution, 1815–1860. In addition to this technological escalation, the imposition of new organizational schemes in increasingly large textile factories greatly facilitated productivity increases as well as more exacting standards for the production of uniform thread and woven products. City tenement housing quickly degenerated into slums that not only brought unsanitary living conditions, but also increased poverty, prostitution, and organized crime. Farmers in the West needed manufactured goods from the East, and easterners needed the crops from the West and South. The technology of silk weaving changed as well, most dramatically with the invention of the Jacquard loom in the 1720s. Acquisitive, profit-oriented economic attitudes characterized most of eighteenth-century Europe; and Britain was like other Protestant countries of the early modern period in having a relatively well-educated working class. But recent scholarship has tended to present colonial markets and materials as only a secondary cause of British economic successes. subsequent years, continuing to the present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. Pomeranz, The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy (2000) asks one of the classic questions of history: Why did sustained industrial growth begin in north-west Europe, despite surprising similarities between advanced areas of Europe and East Asia? The new, mechanized textile industry prospered and grew, employing thousands of workers, mainly in the Northeast. The Oxford Companion to British History. The early machine was bulky and very heavy so that its somewhat obvious applications as a source of power for transportation were not readily solved. JOHN CANNON "industrial revolution The transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to settled agriculture (farming and herding) that first occurred in the Near East is often called the Neolithic revolution. The "industrial revolution" is a term coined in the nineteenth century to describe the rapid rise of the modern factory system and the related economic, social, and cultural effects. The term "Industrial Revolution" was first formulated by British historian Arnold Toynbee (1884), who considered this period of industrial and technological change more historically significant than political events such as the French Revolution. Industrialization increased material wealth, restructured society, and created important new schools of philosophy. were impressed at the forms of misbehavior that characterized the new industrial towns, this to some extent reflected their fears of social change and their inability to see the social relationships that in fact characterized them. As a result, this line of scholarship has offered more nuanced views of the society that early industrialization produced than were previously available. The British Industrial Revolution was soon followed by industrial revolutions in north-eastern Europe and the United States, with the U.S. and Germany becoming Britain's rivals in the Second Industrial Revolution after 1850. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983., DEWALD, JONATHAN "Industrial Revolution The concept is probably most applicable to late-eighteenth-century England, where the rapidity of the onset of industrialization, particularly in the textile and metal industries, was very much remarked upon by contemporaries. Human history is largely the history of cities and nations, and the gathering of populations into concentrated areas is responsible for many political, cultural, technological, scientific, and other developments. 9:Mill Worker's Letter on the Hardships in the Textile Mills . Coal was unusable in blast furnaces for various reasons, but in 1709 Abraham Darby discovered that coke, a burnable substance produced from coal, could be used. Coal was expensive to transport, and breakage during shipment made it useless in the blast furnaces that produced wrought iron. The average non-Ford laborer earned less than $800 a year for a six-day workweek. Either way, the Industrial Revolution is without question one of the most important transformations in human history, and it is best understood through an appreciation of its complex origins, its evolution and spread, and its ethical and political influences. Historians have turned to probate inventories to demonstrate the breadth of the consumer revolution that these centuries brought to England, the Netherlands, France, and Germany. For instance, under the impulse of John Hall, a machinist who began working at the Harpers Ferry federal gun factory in 1820, American gun makers developed a production process precise and mechanized enough to produce standardized, interchangeable gun parts; such an approach would make the fortune of gun maker Samuel Colt in the 1850s. By the late eighteenth century, Britain was also Europe's leading imperial power, holding territories in North America, the Caribbean, and India, and benefiting from the trade in African slaves. If observers From a modest background, Richard Arkwright became extremely wealthy from his cotton-spinning mills, and made a point of displaying his wealth in conspicuous ways. Men, women, and children alike were employed at survival wages in unhealthy and dangerous environments. The early manufacture of steel in England is invariably discussed with one of the nineteen…, Joseph Marie Jacquard Mokyr, Joel. More generally, the widespread availability of inexpensive manufactured items coupled with better and cheaper transportation of goods in the canal age were important factors in the great market revolution of the early nineteenth century. In the thirteenth century, for instance, Italian craftsmen learned how to make silk cloth, and their techniques spread north of the Alps in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, so that by the eighteenth century the French city of Lyon numbered several thousand silk weavers. Finally, the Industrial Revolution produced previously unimaginable effects on the human–environment relationship. Their challenge in maximizing the power output was to use high temperatures and very high steam pressures, without having the engine explode. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. Historians have for a century vigorously debated the impact of the industrial revolution on living standards, wages, and (more recently), the heights and weights of workers. But historians have also spoken of this process as proto-industrialization, a term that emphasizes the new economic relationships and expectations, as well as the demographic consequences, created by this system. Though they set their own pace of work, those ." The spread of new, powerful machines using new sources of power (water, then coal-generated steam) constituted the most obvious aspect of this process of change. In its social structure, Britain was as aristocratic as other European countries, and its merchants were as eager as merchants elsewhere to achieve acceptance among the landed gentry. Mantoux, Paul. Mokyr, Joel. Colonel Edwin Drake was the first person to successfully use drilling to extract oil from the earth, which he did in Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, but John D. Rockefeller was the man who succeeded in gaining control over 90 percent of American refineries between 1865 and 1879, creating with Standard Oil the first modern monopoly in America. And because the Industrial Revolution first took place within a capitalist economy, the pursuit of private profit drove the technological and industrial transformation. In 1751, Britain exported £46,000 of cotton cloth; by 1800 this had soared to £5.4 million and by 1861 to £46.8 million. When wages were paid, their amount was a function of these "moral" customs (some historians even speak of a "moral" economy) and the prosperity of the business as much as of the supply and demand of labor. Living conditions were often deplorable, with thousands of families forced to reside in slums that were breeding grounds for infectious diseases.


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