8.1 Phase Diagram of Water • Field – 1 phase • Line – phase coexistence, 2 phases • Triple point – 3 phases 3 phases: solid, liquid, vapour Triple point: 4.579 Torr (~603Pa), 0.0098oC. 0000001578 00000 n This temperature is the critical temperature (Tc), the highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid. H��TM��0��+��%��8�몫�j-\,����A�a�0��-�݄��V������_w�~ݏ�n]����2b��+�Ae<5P�1�⿬�q0�ρHy�!�q��|0A��u����z�$扁46\�R���L�,�����j��gtA>ꀜ�)��U�� ��_S4�A�3��0&��$C1Y�}�(.������⺀gon|6��9X%�-��������jqŻ"�.Yy������{�\� .&R��|4/�I�I1�3�\eG,%��Pi.��Q�u3&����@�#0���j�Wк]����!��lc�e?܅)Ϙ 1o�@�u���7Xv۶q?9�+D�v]w��z�$���P'*���*�*GG�5ӑȹ:���&'@��r�Ց؉'�gL�d�Œ�a$Ym�κ3����1�3��>�v��/��c}պ�z��әg���Yy�~�5��bdK;��������k�_5���F뷈� 9��{�h��n��߮*��i�ۡ"s�\3��l�r ;� 5��� ��N�0ƒ�O,�I�Ol�1i�g�l��EM�kW��zUM;�P0j� Փ��-����VݽmǨ�����!��IÕ:�;߹�-r_�DZߴ5P�� ����e�T�XW�o�ll�No��j;>T���kj����2�PO�w�Y'J���&�JĽ �d�����ÓEqy^��g0 �0RX���*G��&U���a�G��<0���'F��f�ߺUk��]7���͟ ��x�a�J9&)W�?�R딋��T;y��` Ș�� To understand what happens at the critical point, consider the effects of temperature and pressure on the densities of liquids and gases, respectively. E"e�C؞������F+� ��C�s�g�y�����Z��o^��sP(A<=�&�K��9�]���w��^��a6|�f���ѷ?=������ë��؆�ݛx^G��긩������û�a�� u�ٮ��Ww��j���0{��J��hu��|�=�W�o��C=���6��c�X�X��m��������G�����nO��5|��ᷯ�(����O���3g�%���!Xʇ����b�?V�b��o�����5*����� DC��J�-�A5��?ʾ���0� �I�8��Vn0z�nw�D��-/V��᰻���R The triple point is −56.6°C and 5.11 atm, which means that liquid CO2 cannot exist at pressures lower than 5.11 atm. i ��E�*�� 108�U�X,���ǸA\���>�� �3��lH;��, �A�Q��@n�mcӗ�L�O��lY`꘨��������N%1X��c�a���5����``|�H���H�10IJ2�#����������`�� � �TuP Consequently, applying a pressure of 150 atm will melt ice at −1.0°C. 0000009873 00000 n <]>> 0000003554 00000 n startxref In contrast to the phase diagram of water, the phase diagram of CO 2 (Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)) has a more typical melting curve, sloping up and to the right. predict the physical form of a sample of water at 400°C and 150 atm. • Phase diagram (equilibrium) – The relationships between temperature, compositions and quantities of phases at equilibrium. 347 17 xref 0000008654 00000 n startxref The solid phase is favored at low temperature and high pressure; the gas phase is favored at high temperature and low pressure. 0000004129 00000 n A phase diagram is a graphic summary of the physical state of a substance as a function of temperature and pressure in a closed system. 5 0 obj ��$�np��TE�J�E��J"��K�BZۀ\��@��\�����? 0000003298 00000 n 0000019389 00000 n 0000001265 00000 n Referring to the phase diagram of water in Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\), predict the physical form of a sample of water at −0.0050°C as the pressure is gradually increased from 1.0 mmHg to 218 atm. 0000000016 00000 n << /Length 6 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> These layers, together with melting induced by friction as a skater pushes forward, appear to account for both the ease with which a skater glides and the fact that skating becomes more difficult below about −7°C, when the number of lubricating surface water layers decreases. 0000001696 00000 n 0 _�׎\��e�-�;�~��U'�¦�g��)����� 0 ���I 0000005960 00000 n As the temperature of a liquid increases, its density decreases. 0000002222 00000 n endstream endobj 76 0 obj <>stream 0000005924 00000 n Figure 13.26. 0000004883 00000 n 65 0 obj <> endobj @��Ӱ�������LB8\�I4ȋy\��r��Ey=̗��2>A�3h_�,e�\��h�,�,�jr�7Ӆ�� ���{x�i�{��r�N����%�zĄ�yo�1a�ꭗf�"Z��,`�ї�b��2��^�@3˟CY>��Q�\3�\��T6+�U�h1��IT��pN�E�������XN����{�大��j2�P�#���U�f"z/�$���!^F���*��X�aY�7��U�o j�t�d|i��L�i6�/�u�)3�mn6�BTOM���.�f�׮ m�(�^m���M�^�G>N@,�{�>J���s�A��Ų�è��v���/�{v�R�n 0000002991 00000 n The pressure is much lower than the pressure needed to decrease the melting point of ice by even 1°C, and experience indicates that it is possible to skate even when the temperature is well below freezing. @� Jz\� 0000010820 00000 n Figure 13.26. 0000004360 00000 n Move along that line in the appropriate direction (in this case cooling) and describe the phase changes. The regime of the various solid high-pressure phases at lower temperatures is outside the scope of our present study. We have already indicated that the pressure dependence of the melting point of water is of vital importance. 0000003672 00000 n Ice Skating: An Incorrect Hypothesis of Phase Transitions. Far more reproducible than the melting point of ice, which depends on the amount of dissolved air and the atmospheric pressure, the triple point (273.16 K) is used to define the absolute (Kelvin) temperature scale. Also notice the critical point at 30.98°C and 72.79 atm. Missed the LibreFest? describe the changes that occur as the sample in part (a) is slowly allowed to cool to −50°C at a constant pressure of 150 atm. 0000004718 00000 n 0000072616 00000 n


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