In case of methanol, the electron density along C-O bond is more drifted towards the oxygen atom because for methanol, the C-atom is sp3 hybridized while for phenol it is sp2 hybridized – this simply means that in phenol, the functional carbon atom is more stable, energetically, and can pull the bonding electrons more towards its own nucleus when compared to that of methanol. We know that phenol having benzene ring with -OH attached. Have a look at the conjugate bases of alcohol and phenol i. e.  alkoxide and phenoxide ion, R-OH <============> RO(-) + H(+) Due to the repulsive interaction between the two bulky (–R) groups, the bond angle (R-O-R) is slightly greater than the tetrahedral angle. And we know that the methanol is aliphatic -OH compound and  the C-O bond having single bond character. Alcohol is one of the many functional groups found in organic compounds. 9. Yes, phenol is less polar than methanol. Favorite Answer. The normal boiling point is till high (216 °C), but the vapour pressure is high enough that o-nitrobenzene is easily steam distilled. Phenol has lower dipole moment than alcohol. Due to the repulsion between the unshared electron pairs of oxygen, the bond angle of C-O-H bonds in alcohols is slightly less than the tetrahedral angle (109°-28′). Relevance. This means that phenol is more acidic than alcohol. Still have questions? In case of ethers, the oxygen atom is surrounded by bulky alkyl groups, hence repulsion between these R groups pushes the two C-O bonds away from each other and hence the bond angle is slightly greater than the tetrahedral angle. How does the caveman theory mesh with the out of africa theory? On contrary the +I effect of the alkyl group destabilises the alkoxide making it a strong base. In both the cases, oxygen atoms contain two bond pairs and two lone pairs of electrons and are oriented in a tetrahedral shape around the oxygen atom. Phenol structure is mainly attributed to two factors: Hence, C-O bond length in phenol is slightly less than that in methanol. Electrostatics: Basic introduction to charge, Classifiaction of haloalkanes and haloarenes, 1. Partial double bond character due to the resonance in the aromatic ring because of a conjugated electron pair of oxygen. Conceptual Question – alcohol , phenol and ether. In alcohols, the carbon atom of the main chain is bonded to the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group by a sigma (σ) bond. This sigma bond is formed due to the overlap of an sp3 hybridized orbital of carbon with an sp3 hybridized orbital of oxygen. General Alcohol Structure Phenol structure Do not know, as it has that aromatic ring. Hence considering both electronic and steric factors, primary alkoxides are the most stable and tertiary alkoxides are the least stable, so primary alcohols are the most acidic and tertiary alcohols are the least acidic. The alcohol structure depends on various factors. To understand why is it the way it is, let us focus on the C-O bond, in both the molecules, that lends them their polarity. Based on Arrhenius’s Theory, acid is a species donating hydrogen ion whereas base is a species donating hydroxide ion. In the case of alkoxide ion there is no electronic effect stabilising the negative charge of oxygen. What part of the brain identifies an aesthetic as being cool. For electronic factors, when there are more electron donating alkyl groups attached to the hydroxyl carbon, the electron density on the O atom increases and the alkoxide is consequently less stable. Ph-Oh<============> PhO(-) + H(+). To evaluate the strength of the alkoxide we will look at both steric and electronic factors. 10. a glacier moves a the rate of 43.0 meters per year. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. To learn more about alcohol structure, ether structure and phenol structure and other topics of chemistry, register with BYJU’S. (simple alcohols). The C-O-H bond angle in alcohols is slightly less than the tetrahedral angle because of the repulsion between the two lone pairs of electrons on oxygen atoms as these pairs pushes the C-O bonds closer to each other. 7. Boiling point of alcohol is higher than its isomeric ether. 2. Firstly, let us talk about the electronegativity of the carbon atom to which O-atom is attached. Since in the alcohol, there is hydrogen bonding in the O-H group, it has a higher boiling point than the ether. C-O bond length in phenol is less than that of alcohol. 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COH bond angle in alcohol is less than tetrahedral angle of 109.50 .COC bond angle in ether is more than tetrahedral angle of 109.50. Presence of nitro group at ortho and para position makes phenol more acidic. Nonetheless, alcohols basically involve the entire -OH in chemical reactions, losing the entire functional group instead of losing only H in -OH.


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