The use of child labor also led to new labor laws, such as the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act. The industrial revolution occurred in a number of places across the world including England, North America, Continental Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia.. The act was the result of the Napoleonic Wars between France and England and was intended to cut both England and France off from the American market. Engleman, Ryan. “What Caused the American Industrial Revolution?” Investopedia, 23 Jan. 2018, To learn more about the industrial revolution, check out this article on the best books about the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution also caused a rise in unskilled labor. Rees, Jonathan. First roller coaster, patented by Edwin Prescott in 1898 Telegraph, invented by Samuel Morse in 1844 The industrial revolution occurred in a number of places across the world including England, North America, Continental Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. In the second half of the 19th century, new inventions brought about even more industrialization. The beginning of industrialization in the United States is usually pegged to the opening of a textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793 by the recent English immigrant Samuel Slater. in journalism. Due to all of this Northern and Midwestern industrialization, the South became a supplier of the raw materials necessary for industrialization, instead of developing its own industries, according to Morris: “The South, in the meantime, slipped into the position of an internal colony, exploiting its slaves and being exploited in turn by the Northeast and Midwest. Morris, Charles R. The Dawn of Innovation: The First American Industrial Revolution. The invention of electricity also led to the invention of the electric motor, which greatly improved transportation and led the electric trolley and the electric subway train. The American industrial revolution began in New England. Great Book to read: How the North Promoted, Prolonged and Profited from Slavery This article helped me with my school project, so thank you. These new economic changes led to social and cultural transformations such as the formation of distinct social classes, in particular a new middle class/bourgeoisie which consisted of entrepreneurs, businessmen, law and medical professionals. Steel plow, invented by a blacksmith named John Deere in 1837 In addition, Henry Ford’s assembly line and the rise of mass production after the turn of the 20th century also spurred industrialization. The Industrial Revolution completely transformed the United States until it eventually grew into the largest economy in the world and became the most powerful global superpower. Erie Canal at Little Falls, NY, circa 1880-1897. Poor working conditions and low wages led to the growth of labor unions. While the first phase of the industrial revolution, which took place between 1750 and 1850, began in England and then spread to Continental Europe and North America, the second phase of the industrial revolution,  which took place between 1850 and 1914, began in America and then spread to Europe. The development of the modern electrical grid, starting in the early 1880s, facilitated such technological advances. Thank you! Textile mill working all night in New Bedford, Massachusetts, photo by Jack Delano, circa 1941. These labor unions came about because workers had little political support due to the fact that many of them were immigrants and women who were not allowed to vote. First airplane, Orville and Wilber Wright invented the first plane that was not powered by wind in 1903 In the early 1800s, the Northeast started to develop strong regional economies. The immigrants who migrated to America were young, hard workers who were not afraid of risk and arrived determined to make something of themselves, according to Charles R. Morris in his book The Dawn of Innovation: “Finally, the contribution of immigration to American population growth was generally strong in this era, and immigrants punched above their weight. Although the early American industrial revolution was largely confined to New England, it eventually to spread to the West and then, after the second industrial revolution occurred in the late 19th century, spread to the South. Railroad networks in the U.S. promoted the growth of industries like coal and steel and sped up the transportation of goods to market thus encouraging mass production, mass consumption and economic specialization. By the 1890s, the United States surpassed Britain for first place in manufacturing output and by the beginning of the 20th century, per capita incomes in the United States were double that of Germany and France, and 50% higher than Britain. As Charles R. Morris states in his book The Dawn of Innovation: “The story of American development can be charted as an evolution from local to regional and finally to national networks.”. Whilst inclusive institutions were vitally important to allow it to happen, they were not the whole story. Safety break for elevators, invented by Elisah Otis in 1853 Teacher Created Resources, Inc, 2007. As a result, the total manufacturing output of the United States was 28 times higher in 1929 than it was in 1859. industrial revolution occurred in a number of places, Massachusetts’s role in the industrial revolution, best books about the industrial revolution, View all posts by Rebecca Beatrice Brooks, Of Plymouth Plantation by William Bradford. For example, the invention of electricity and the light bulb allowed factories to stay open longer which vastly increased production volumes. Bessemer process, invented by Henry Bessemer in 1856 This is a very well written and helpful article! Slater Mill in Rhode Island in 1790 Visit this site's About page to find out more about Rebecca. By the 1820s, rural New England and the Middle Atlantic became heavily industrialized with clocks, textiles, shoes and cast-iron stoves becoming the predominant industries there. In 1837, the Federal government completed a 620-mile national road from Maryland to Illinois in an effort to help manufacturers transport goods westward. Industrialization made apprenticeships obsolete and commoditized labor itself. The act had no effect on the British or French economy but completely devastated the American economy. Then in the 1840s, 50s and 60s, newly established widespread railroad systems finally linked the Northeast and Midwest into an “intergrated commercial and industrial unit.” (Morris xii), Celebration of the meeting of the Transcontinental railroad in Promontory Summit, Utah, May 1869. Cincinnati invented the meatpacking ‘disassembly’ line later made famous by Chicago, and Cincinnati brothers-in-law Proctor and Gamble were innovators in America’s first chemical industry.”. The War of 1812 led to a British blockade of the United States eastern coastline, which brought shipping and fishing to a halt. Model T, Henry Ford invented the Ford Model T automobile in 1908. Chattel Slavery +Cotton + Cotton Gin + Textile Mills = Industrial Revolution. Industrialization increased greatly in the late 19th century and early 20th century due to technological advances, according to Jonathan Rees in his article, Industrialization and Urbanization in the United States, 1880-1929, on the Oxford Research Encyclopedias website: “Before 1880, industrialization depended upon a prescribed division of labor—breaking most jobs up into smaller tasks, and assigning the same people to repeat one task indefinitely. Railroad work also attracted a large number of immigrant workers to the United States which provide an abundant labor supply for growing businesses. “To What Extent Did the Industrial Revolution Change American Social, Economic & Political.” Seattle PI, As factories produced more goods, transporting these goods became important. “The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914.” U.S. History Scene, “Industrialization and Urbanization in the United States, 1880-1929.” Oxford Research Encyclopedias, July 2016, Industries took advantage of these natural resources to manufacture a number of goods to put on the market. The following is an overview of the American Industrial Revolution: Full-scale Industrialization didn’t occur in America until two textile manufacturers, Samuel Slater and Francis Cabot Lowell, introduced mechanized textile manufacturing to the United States in the late 1790s and early 1800s.


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