The difficulties that arose in the neopositivist logic of science drew the attention of many logicians and philosophers to the problem of the connection and interaction of logical structures with the structures of objective and experimental practical activity. The technical and conceptual tools of those aspects of symbolic logic referred to as nonclassical (various aspects of polysemantic logics, modal logics, and the logic of probabilistic and statistical reasoning) have become common in these areas. The application of the logic of science to a number of sociological disciplines, however, has met with considerable difficulties, related, on the one hand, to the complexity of the laws and theoretical structures of these sciences and, on the other, to the insufficient development or complete absence of an adequate mathematical apparatus. Darwin and the Making of Sexual Selection. Seen this way, ideological debates over science illustrate just how central science is in the modern world. Part of taking science seriously involves judicious analysis of how ideologies might influence scientific processes and applications. understand more science concepts and processes, their explanations should become more sophisticated . These components are always related in the same logical way: 1. Sciences that claim to bear upon immigration restrictions, government, or human sexuality find wider audiences and wider disputes than scientific conclusions limited to barnacle morphology or quantum gravity. There may be overlap in the real-world history of science, but the terms regularly and usefully label distinct notions. The book of Joshua records that God stopped the sun (presumably from moving around the Earth), which the Church interpreted as evidence for a geocentric planetary order. Gannett, Lisa. Darwin’s evolutionary theory, postulating common descent and natural selection as a mechanism of change, has been accepted in broad outline by contemporary biologists. Others found evolution as evidence for socialism only when purged of its problematic framing as essentially competitive. The Russian scientist and philosopher Peter Kropotkin emphasized the centrality of cooperation in biological evolution; his (1902) study of mutual aid argued that a variety of mutualistic and altruistic behaviors had been largely underrepresented in contemporary biology in favor of the more gladiatorial frameworks deployed by British naturalists. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1990. Graham, Loren. “The history of the discovery of the cigarette-lung cancer link: evidentiary traditions, corporate denial, global toll.” Tobacco Control 21 (2): 87-91. However, the premise that science and religion share the same goals has been disputed from various quarters. Tuana, Nancy. 2010. To actually examine this, Iran a regression between median age of the population in each country and the case-fatality rate. Many of the architects of modern sciences were themselves Christians of one stripe or another, in whose minds there was no conflict between their own scientific and religious practices. While such theories might seem humorously arcane today, they were partly responsible for excluding generations of women from higher education. Between the two schools of thought, the idea of deductive reasoning emerged, which has remained a cornerstone of the scientific method. Further development of the logic of science, therefore, requires more intense inquiry into symbolic logic, in all of its varieties. Ideology and Politics. At least since the Renaissance, the term has acquired connotations of theoretical, organized, and experiential knowledge. 2010. Quantitative evidence for Agassiz’s polygenism came from Samuel George Morton’s renowned biometrical measurements of cranial volumes. Many of the Early Modern progenitors of natural science hoped that science would apply to large swaths of human life. Davis, Edward B. Part of the answer is that the process of interpreting and applying scientific theories can generate divergent results. The discovery of the commonality of the logical structures of scientific theories that differ in content has opened up great possibilities for transferring the concepts and methods of one theory to the field of another, for substantiating the possibility of reducing one theory to another, and for elucidating the common conceptual and methodological presuppositions of different theories.


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