See also women's meeting. They raised slavery as a moral issue as early as the 1670s and 80s. Anti-Slavery. Up to and including 1751 the Julian calendar was used in England, Wales, Ireland and the British colonies overseas. The Society of Friends (Quakers) was founded in the middle of the seventeenth century in England by George Fox and others. American Anti-Slavery Society: Founded in Philadelphia in 1833 on the basis of immediate emancipation, the American Anti-Slavery Society advocated a broadly based anti-slavery movement. See also Orthodox Friends; Separation of 1827/28. The Quakers were the first whites to denounce slavery in the American colonies and Europe. Its original members included John Jay and Alexander Hamilton; later, many members of the Society of Friends, including Isaac T. Hopper, joined the society. Jedoch wurde der Begriff bald von den Mitgliedern selbst adaptiert und ist heute normaler Sprachgebrauch. The Free Quakers ceased to exist in 1836, partly because they could not define a common religious belief. Such composite registers were unusual prior to the 1827 Separation but became common thereafter. Learn more. The Colonization Movement was controversial within the Society of Friends. The first Anti-Slavery Fair was held in Boston in 1834. This was because they interpreted the doctrines of their religion to exclude slaves. Originally inspired by New York minister Elias Hicks (1748 - 1830), these Friends became increasingly liberal in theology, social practices and church organization over the decades. American Quaker activity has been documented in Massachusetts and Virginia as early as 1656. Progressive Friends (also called "Congregational Friends"): A reform movement which developed among Hicksite Friends in the 1840s, but also included many non-Quaker liberals and radicals. Friends Association for the Aid and Elevation of the Freedmen was established by Hicksite Quakers of both sexes in 1864. Even though Fox, a major Quaker leader, was opposed to slavery, other Quaker leaders owned slaves. It became the Annual Meeting of the Friends of Human Progress in 1854, and continued until approximately 1884. Friends' Freedmen's Association of Philadelphia: An organization of Orthodox Quakers founded in 1863 as Friends' Association of Philadelphia and Its Vicinity, for the Relief of Colored Freemen. Quakers provided a leadership structure, reliable national network, and significant material resources to the campaigns on both sides of the Atlantic. Its Orthodox counterpart was renamed Friends' Freedmen's Association circa 1873. Quakers were not alone in this, and the key strength of the historical abolitionist movement, in Britain and North America, was the determination of the slaves themselves. Anti-Slavery Sewing Societies: Associations of women who made clothing to donate to runaway slaves and freedmen. Thus the evils of slavery were gradually and systematically exposed in what is arguably the first Human Rights movement aimed at securing the fundamental rights of others. 1751. They helped to create a moral-political momentum, which attracted allies in other churches and from wider society, making it a mass movement. Note on abbreviations: Yearly, quarterly, and monthly meetings are frequently abbreviated in correspondence as ym, qm, and mm, respectively. Yearly meeting: A large autonomous body of Quakers, which meets for several days once a year. 1750 and 25th 1mo. (regardless of the day of the month); April was "2mo.," etc. Click Britain or the Americas, for more information about Quaker thought and action concerning slavery in these parts of the world. Quakers played a major role in the abolition movement against slavery. Preparative meeting: A regularly-organized business meeting of a single congregation which prepared business to be presented to the monthly meeting. Traveling certificate or minute: A document issued by a meeting to a member in good standing (normally a recorded minister), allowing him or her to travel to other meetings to visit or preach.


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