Figure 3      Formulations with phosphatidylcholine free of further emulsifiers. For a macroscopic area of a lipid bilayer, N is very large and the entropy term (per lipid molecule) therefore becomes negligible (cf. From surfactant to cellulose and DNA self-assembly. In the latter case a pronounced solubilisation of the oil phase in surfactant micelles in the aqueous phase would be required to allow migration of oil through the aqueous phase [Dickinson and Stainsby, 1988]. Hydrolysis of phospholipids leads to formation of free fatty acids, lyso-phospholipids and glycerophosphorylic compounds (Fig. PC is a mixture of differently substituted sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine backbones. Because of its high content of linoleic acid and penetration capability, soy phosphatidylcholine delivers linoleic acid very effectively into the skin, resulting in antiacne properties [5]. Structolipid® contains LCT and MCT enzymatically cleaved and randomly re-esterified instead of using physical mixtures of LCT/MCT. V. Papadimitriou, T. G. Sotiroudis, A. Xenakis. Coalescence is accompanied by flocculation and sometimes also creaming. NP-LC is traditionally performed on a bare silica column with low wavelength UV detection. Westesen and Wehler [1992] found that the dispersed phase consisted of ideal emulsion droplets covered by monolayers of the emulsifier. 3). The first emulsions of this kind to be marketed were Lipofundin® MCT, where conventional LCT and MCT were used in equal proportions. However, different hydrolysis rates were determined, according to the concentration of additional phospholipid components [Grit et al., 1991]. Acid treatment must be performed for conversion into hydratable forms. The light source was He-Ne laser of wavelength 632.8 nm. The solvation layer has to be dispersed to allow closer contact, which is counteracted by the hydration energy. Fisher and Parker [1988] suggested that although droplet break-up may be improved by higher temperatures, a more rigid emulsifier film allows better stabilisation and can be obtained by cooling the sample during homogenisation. In many cases liposomes, nanoparticles and DMS are compatible with each other in a sense that they can be used as a modular system. Martin E. Leser, Laurent Sagalowicz, Martin Michel, Heribert J. Watzke. R.G Alany, T Rades, S Agatonovic-Kustrin, N.M Davies, I.G Tucker. Lecithins are regarded as truly “natural” ingredients, “without tangible properties or detectable change of the organism, it quietly and gently, like nature herself, still brings forth the most desirable effects in the organism” (Eibl, 1984). Table 1 shows a summary of the properties of unsaturated and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine. Fig. Precise phosphatide analysis is very much an activity of specialists. In this case the acyl chains face the outer side of the cylindrical shapes, whereas on the inside the polar groups are located facing a continuous area of water. So far, the self-assembly phenomenon has been analysed in terms of the molecular shape, which constrains the curvatures of the interface between immiscible moieties. This was evidenced by a current reduction of about one order of magnitude. oleate, stearate, etc. The former occurs when the PLs are associated with calcium, magnesium, or iron cations. A simple model, involving nothing more than potatoes, and oven and matches, is useful. At low water contents there occur at room temperature several crystalline and liquid crystalline structures, which transform above 55 °C into a cubic liquid crystalline structure. Hansrani [1980], Rabiner et al. Furthermore, the space covered by the hydrated ‘head groups’ has strong influence on molecular orientation in organised arrangements (see Fig. Chapman [1975] stressed that in mixed PC/PE systems not a single phase but rather separation of phospholipids into different phases can occur (lateral phase separation), which could be proven by thermal analysis and electron microscopy [Cevc and Marsh, 1987]. 2. The mixture was passed five times in the high-pressure homogenizer under 40,000 psi pressure. Different molecular shapes can be assigned to phospholipid molecules, explaining these preferential packing geometries and phases. These compositions are based on mixtures of phosphatidylcholine, triglycerides and alcohol. Lecithin organogels have been reported to be thermo-reversible in nature and have a gel-to-sol transition of ~40°C [8]. Structure of Microemulsions Studied by NMR.


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