I N T ROD U C T I ON Solving a crime begins with the crime scene. Whenever you touch a surface without gloves or other protection, you leave behind an invisible fingerprint. the world, and he plans to What kept Don Catlin so dediremain active in the field of cated to the field of sports research. For example, blood proteins can be isolated to identify the blood type of a suspect. Experimental design a. f. Which insect(s) is found on decomposing bodies after the body has become dehydrated? In both profiles, use red for child and mother, and use blue for any band patterns shared by the child and alleged father. 374 Forensic Anthropology: What We Learn from Bones C A S E S T U DI ES Alfred Packer (1874) After serving as a soldier in the Civil War, Alfred Packer worked as a guide and prospector in Colorado. You will not need to look for any recognition sites because your section of DNA has already been broken into known sizes (lengths) of DNA (predigested). SHOE WEAR PATTERNS Although two different people may purchase the same type of shoes, the wear pattern on the shoes will appear quite different (Figure 15-3). In this lab, you are investigating an assault, in which the victim tore off a piece of his attacker’s shirt. Obj. 2. All samples are collected by a forensic palynologist who is wearing gloves and using clean tools, such as paintbrushes and cellophane tape (Figure 5-14). General Information: Proprietary leather dressings (containing lanolin, neatsfoot oil, etc.) 2. 2. D death the cessation, or end, of life decomposition the process of rotting and breaking down deductive reasoning deriving the consequences from the facts using a series of logical steps delta a triangular ridge pattern with ridges that go in different directions above and below a triangle density the ratio of the mass of an object to its volume, expressed by the equation: density = mass/ volume direct evidence evidence that (if true) proves an alleged fact, such as an eyewitness account of a crime direct transfer the passing of evidence, such as a fiber, from victim to suspect or vice versa DNA fingerprint pattern of DNA fragments obtained by examining a person’s unique sequence of DNA base pairs (also called DNA profiling) DNA probe a molecule labeled with a radioactive isotope, dye, or enzyme that is used to locate a particular sequence or gene on a DNA molecule document analysis the examination of questioned documents with known material for a variety of analyses, such as authenticity, alterations, erasures, and obliterations Glossary 561 One task of a coroner is determining manner of death. tooth. It may allow the examiner to match or exclude a suspect from a crime scene. Use the scroll bar to the right to pull the screen down. The case reached a dead end. The weft travels left to • stretches in one direction right and is woven between only the two warp threads. Picture frame glass is 1/8 inch thick, while window glass must be 3/32 inch to 1/ 8 inch thick to resist wind gusts without breaking. Do an investigation comparing less expensive bed linens to those that are much higher priced. Day Insect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Blowfly 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Species A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Species B 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 Species C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Species D 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 = no evidence of fly species; 1 = evidence of egg, larva (maggot) or pupa Death: Meaning, Manner, Mechanism, Cause, and Time 335 ACTIVITY 11-5 Ch. Otto Wächter's recipe for parchment size, which contains one third size, one third wine vinegar and one third alcohol (see. Figure 15-5. 2. Objectives: By the end of this activity, you will be able to: 1. A sample of the stain is tested using a presumptive chemical reagent. Identify different minutiae patterns found in fingerprints. Part 1: A Practical Guide and Manual for Human Hairs.” Quantico, VA: FBI. A laser pointer can be projected toward the location of the shooter and may assist in determining the shooter’s position. When surfaces are large, they can be vacuumed. Explain your answer. 362 • In Europe in the 1800s, the origins of the races of humans were heatedly discussed. Obj. The death may be caused by alcohol or drug overdose. Although a room may look perfectly clean and totally free of blood after a thorough washing of the walls and floor, blood evidence still remains. forgery, fraudulence, and money was not recovered. 2. New York: Fairchild Publications, 1982. If there are obvious differences between a standard and a questioned document, then it is likely that the documents have different authors. 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 The boy quickly slipped the crystal glass vase into his jacket. Crime Scene. Obj. A parchment leaf should never be immersed in a water bath to remove it from a mount, as might be done occasionally with a paper artifact. e the seven step s of a crime-scen 2.6 Explain th e in ve st igation. A hard black bead results from burning .................................. wool 4b. Chapter-opening scenarios highlight intriguing news shaping forensic science today. 4. Tool Marks 473 CHAPTER Photographing Tools When photographing a tool, experts focus on any scratches or gouges on the surface. If death occurred between two and eight hours, lividity will be present, but if the skin is pressed, the color will disappear. During the restoration process of this painting, fingerprints were discovered in the paint. 187 Activity 7-5 Which Man Is the Father? Ganzel, Dewey. Include a description to qualify your answer. Evidence from the Earth. While viewing the 50 grains under the microscope, determine how many quartz, feldspar, black minerals, and others are in the count of 50 grains. d. Granite is usually found in massive deposits. Proving in court that the manner of death was a homicide, however, may be difficult. 3. From this, it can be concluded that: 1. Blood samples were collected from each man and the baby. Arsenic Within 30 minutes of ingestion it produces abdominal pain, severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, dryness of the throat, difficulty speaking, muscle cramps, convulsions, kidney failure, delirium, and death. Continued failure to eat enough calcium can result in a weakening of bones. All drugs were found at therapeutic sudden death. The dental record may help identify individuals killed in plane crashes, explosions, or other disasters when other identification methods fail. An obese man was discovered in his air-conditioned hotel room sitting in a chair in front of the television. This means the officer protects the area within which the crime has occurred, restricting all unauthorized persons from entering. 2 Figure 13-12. It operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The crime scene investigator may actually cut a part from the door or door jamb that contains tool mark evidence. Based on the forensic analysis of hair and the size of the hair’s diameter, would you consider the suspect’s hair to match the evidence or crime scene hair? Obj. Do research on how forensic toxicologists take samples from living Figure 9-6 on the next or deceased human bodies. Procedure: 1. The honey itself is harvested from forests of western ghats and is thoroughly quality tested by us to ensure it is 100% pure, organic , unheated and unfiltered, fresh from healthy beehives. Using clean cotton swabs, repeat steps 1 to 8 using the shirt containing the ketchup stain. 7. Approximately 11 pollen grains fit across the diameter under 400×. Scientists have found a way to slow down the speed of light from 186,000 miles per second to about 38 miles per hour, the speed of a car in rush-hour traffic. Describe the seals, signatures, and images that appear on American currency bills. In Figure 6-11, on the next page, fingerprint minutiae are described. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education, 2008. ©AP Photo/Paul Walsh As soon as fingerprints were discovered to be a reliable means of identification, criminals began to devise ways to alter them so they could avoid being identified. Metal or magnetic powders can also be used. Using the same procedure described in Steps 2 and 3, prepare and examine a wet-mount slide of pollen from each of the four samples (suspects). 17.2 13 14 F I RE A R MS A ND R I F L I NG An archer will hit a target with greater accuracy if there is a twist on the end of the arrow feathers. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Figure 11-14. Note: Begin your lines at the leading edge of the drop of blood, and draw the line in the opposite direction from the direction in which the blood was traveling.


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