In 1957, most parts of Western Australia had pastures so poor that only one sheep to the square mile could be supported [1]. [5], Agriculture systems that involve low inputs and outputs relative to land area, Wadham, Sir Samuel; Wilson, R. Kent and Wood, Joyce (1957). Extensive Farming is a system of cultivation, which uses limited inputs, i.e. Privacy Policy 8. Finally, intensive agriculture requires greater investments in energy (electricity), resources (water) and technology, while extensive investment depends on natural hydrological cycles. Only in some parts of north-western Europe is productivity at par with intensive farming. Each farmer controls and cultivates extensive farm-land. Due to extensive nature of cropping pattern, produc­tivity per unit area of land remains very low. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Examples of intensive agriculture. Location of Extensive Farming 2. Intensity of farming is very low. Image Guidelines 5. Extensive livestock production is an animal farming system characterised by a low productivity per animal and per surface. Unlike intensive farming, importance of animals are less sig­nificant in extensive farming where machines like tractors, harvesters, winnowers, thrashers are employed in the cultivation process. The nature of extensive farming means it requires less rainfall than intensive farming. Entire operation is controlled by machines. In rest of the extensive farming region, productiv­ity often goes lower than intensive farming. The only building houses the milking…. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). As mentioned before, extensive livestock farming has the characteristic of harnessing the natural resources of which a specific territory is already endowed. The crop yield in extensive agriculture depends primarily on the natural fertility of the soil, the terrain, the climate, and the availability of water. Little is con­sumed by the cultivators themselves. Extensive farming has a number of advantages over intensive farming: Extensive farming can have the following problems:[2], Extensive farming was once thought to produce more methane and nitrous oxide per kg of milk than intensive farming. Nomadic herdingis an extreme example of extensive farming, where herders move their animals t… Efficiency of livestock systems in harsh environment. Updates? Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Thus population is scarce in agriculture or primary activity. Greater efficiency of labour means generally lower product prices. Characteristic Features of Extensive Farming. [3] Report a Violation, Intensive Method of Agriculture: Location, Cropping Pattern and Features, Farming Types: 12 Major Types of Farming | Agriculture, Organizing Filling Systems in an Office: Top 2 Methods. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about Extensive Farming. Nomadic herding is an extreme example of extensive farming, where herders move their animals to use feed from occasional sunlight. One particular crop —mainly wheat—dominates the culti­vation. Just as the demand has led to the basic division of cropping and pastoral activities, these areas can also be subdivided depending on the region's rainfall, vegetation type and agricultural activity within the area and the many other parentheses related to this data. Plagiarism Prevention 4. Vigne, M. (2014). It is not labour-intensive, rather it is highly capital-intensive. Cropping Pattern of Extensive Farming 3. Prohibited Content 3. The extensive type is exemplified by the cattle ranchers of the United States. Bulk of the production is sent to the international market for export. In north-western Europe, this farm size remains lower than 50 hectares but in North American continent it exceeds over 200 hectares. Extensive farming or extensive agriculture (as opposed to intensive farming) is an agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labor, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed. Mechanisation can be used more effectively over large, flat areas. Content Filtrations 6. Only a little is consumed by cultivators themselves. Productivity per unit of land remains low but efforts are always made to maximize productivity per unit area of land. Because extensive agriculture produces a lower yield per unit of land, its use commercially requires large quantities of land in order to be profitable. Compare intensive agriculture. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. In contrast to intensive farming — where the entire product is consumed by the cultivator himself—extensive farming is highly commercialized. Black Friday Sale! Extensive agriculture is distinguished from intensive agriculture in that the latter, employing large amounts of labour and capital, enables one to apply fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides and to plant, cultivate, and often harvest mechanically. Perspective - Development strategies (CIRAD), [online] (25). labour, investment, machinery etc., in comparison to the land under cultivation. Almost entire products are sent for export. Available at: Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The environmental impact of dairy production: 1944 compared with 2007",,, Articles needing additional references from May 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Location of Extensive Farming 2. It uses small amounts of inputs, capital, and labour compared to the farmed land area. Local environment and soil are not damaged by overuse of chemicals. Unlike intensive farm­ing which is confined in sub-tropical areas, extensive firming is generally found in temperate and high latitudes. So per capita production increases significantly. 90% of the extensive farming region concentrates only on one crop production. The use of machinery and scientific methods of farming produce a large quantity of crops. Omissions? The farm is usually large in comparison with the numbers working and money spent on it. Cropping Pattern of Extensive Farming 3. Less labour per unit areas is required to farm large areas, especially since expensive alterations to land (like terracing) are completely absent. Corrections? Extensive agriculture, in agricultural economics, system of crop cultivation using small amounts of labour and capital in relation to area of land being farmed. Read this article to learn about Extensive Farming. In Australia and New Zealand, dairy cows are kept without housing. [4] A more recent study by CIRAD however found that extensive livestock systems impact the environment less than intensive systems. This demand for land means that extensive agriculture must be carried on where land values are low in relation to labour and capital, which in turn means that extensive agriculture is practiced where population densities are low and thus usually at some distance from primary markets. Characteristic Features of Extensive Farming. Due to dearth of human labour, the entire operation of cultiva­tion is controlled by machines. in S. America; Russian Federation in Eurasia; Australia, New Zealand etc. Premium Membership is now 50% off! Here, owing to the extreme age and poverty of the soils, yields per hectare are very low, but the flat terrain and very large farm sizes mean yields per unit of labour are high. in Oceania. Extensive farming is found in the mid-latitude sections of most continents, as well as in desert regions where water for cropping is not available. Per capita availability of land is much higher. Due to low density of population and non-lucrative nature of agricultural system very few people are seriously interested in agriculture. After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Extensive farming most commonly means raising sheep and cattle in areas with low agricultural productivity, but includes large-scale growing of wheat, barley, cooking oils and other grain crops in areas like the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. One study estimated that the carbon "footprint" per billion kg (2.2 billion lb) of milk produced in 2007 was 37 percent that of equivalent milk production in 1944.


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